Thinking on your feet: The effects of dance on the brain

It’s nearing the end of September: a month for colourful autumn leaves, freshly sharpened pencils and pumpkin spiced lattes.  For many dance music fans, it’s also time to head to the island of Ibiza for the legendary closing parties at some of the world’s greatest clubs. Typically, nights on the ‘white isle’ see clubbers dancing well into the night and early hours of the morning.

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Let’s go dancing: DJs Disciples get the crowd moving at this year’s Cream Ibiza closing party. Credit: James Chapman Photography.

But how does dancing affect us? As anyone who has ever gone to a club night, ceilidh or even a Zumba class can testify, dancing can be excellent physical exercise, raising our heart rates and burning hundreds of calories. However, there is now growing evidence that dancing can also change the way you think.

Just ask professional dancer turned academic psychologist, Dr Peter Lovatt. Dr Lovatt runs the Dance Psychology Lab and researches the links between dance, problem solving and creativity (watch his TEDx talk). According to Dr Lovatt, the benefits of dancing are obvious: “dancing made me feel relaxed and stress free, it helped me to think more clearly, and it felt like the most natural thing in the world to do.” But where’s the empirical evidence for this claim? One emerging area of research studies how different types of dancing can improve different types of problem solving. In a recent study, researchers tested the relationship between dancing and ‘divergent’ thinking; that is, creative thinking tasks with multiple solutions, such as brainstorming. In the experiment, primary school children were randomly allocated to participate in 10 minutes of either ‘improvised’ dance (the experimental group) or ‘command-style’ dance, where they learned a simple routine (the control group). The children then performed a creative toy design task. The results revealed that children assigned to the improvised dance group performed significantly better than the control group. In other words, improvised dancing seemed to boost the children’s creative thinking ability.

There is also growing interest in how dancing can help maintain healthy brain function in older age. Whilst the link between exercise and healthy cognitive function remains uncertain, it remains a key area of interest for researchers. However, fitness may not be the only mechanism involved. Indeed, dancing involves a combination of elements which may be beneficial, including social interaction, musical stimulation and cognitive reasoning (i.e. literally thinking on your feet). In one study, 35 older people who took part in a dancing programme, for over six months, showed a range of cognitive improvements, including improved working memory and reaction times. Yet within the group cardio-respiratory performance did not change. Furthermore, in an American cohort study that tracked over 400 older adults over several years, dancing was the only physical activity linked with lower risk of dementia. This suggests it might not necessarily be just the work-out factor involved in dancing that helps to protect cognitive and perceptual abilities.

Researchers have also explored the therapeutic effects of dance for treating clinical conditions. The findings of several small-scale studies indicate that dancing may be beneficial for people with certain neurodegenerative disorders, like dementia.  For example, residents of a dementia nursing home who took part in weekly dance sessions as part of a research study gained small improvements in certain visual functions and planning ability. Dancing may also help people with mental illness. In one study involving patients admitted to a psychiatric ward, just 30 minutes of dancing to lively music was sufficient to reduce their symptoms of depression and improve vitality.  The interesting thing about this study is that researchers also recruited a second group of patients to simply listen to the same music, without dancing. The results showed that only the patients who danced derived any benefit: in other words, for these patients music alone wasn’t enough.

Of course, the evidence in this area is still emerging and better quality studies are needed to fully understand how dance affects the brain.  The research that has been done still leaves lots of unanswered questions, like what are the effects of different types of dancing and does it matter what type of music you listen to? In the meantime, however, the next time you head off to Ibiza, Zumba or even just dance around the kitchen, just consider the possibility that you might be doing yourself more good than you think.

See you at the front.

Post by: Lamiece Hassan

Aromatherapy: what is it and does it actually work?

ET_essential_oil_candleWe all know that smells can affect the way we feel. Indeed, essential oils are used regularly in Ancient Egypt and India as an adjunct to improve health and well-being. These oils are usually extracted by steam distillation from fragrant plants such as lavender, rose, orange, cinnamon or peppermint, to name just a few. The oils can be inhaled, used during massage, or even ingested.

It is theorised that the effect scent has on mood may be mediated by the architecture of the olfactory system. The areas of the brain that process scents are directly connected with areas involved in processing emotions, memories and autonomic responses.

Let’s start from the beginning, i.e. the nose. Here the receptors on olfactory neurons detect odorants (chemicals which form a scent) and transform these  particles into electrical signals. These signals travel along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb in the central nervous system (Kadohisa, 2013). The olfactory bulb forms connections with other brain areas such as amygdala (the center of emotions) (Wilson-Mendenhall et al., 2013) and the entorhinal cortex (important in memory) (Takehara-Nishiuchi, 2014). The amygdala, in turn, is connected to the hypothalamus, a part of brain that regulates physiological states, e.g. controlling the release of stress hormones. This is one reason why smells can have an impact on our mood and why they evoke such strong memories. Can you think of any smell which conjures up a memory for you? – If so, let us know in the comments below!

The_Soul_of_the_Rose_-_WaterhouseA number of people find that essential oils can affect their mood but these are not the only odorants can which have this effect. If you like spending time in nature you probably noticed that being surrounded with vegetation can reduce stress. One study suggests that the “green odour” (the scent of leaves and vegetation) changes the electrical signals in our brain in a way that brings about a sedative-like action, reflected in a feeling of relaxation (Sano et al., 2002). Studies on rats have shown that this effect could be due to the action of the green odour on the brain circuit which release adrenaline and cortisol (the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) (Nakashima et al., 2004).

Another botanical scent, the essential oil of rose, may have a similar effect on the brain’s stress circuitry (Fukada et al., 2012). Women who carried a test paper soaked in rose essential oil for several days during exam period showed no change in their cortisol levels, while those students supplied with a jasmine aroma patch or nothing at all, had increased amount of cortisol around their exams. One suggestion raised by this study is that rose essential oil could prevent the release of stress hormones. Further, in another study essential oil extracted from orange peels reduced the activity in the prefrontal cortex, part of the brain involved in integrating information, planning and making decisions (Igarashi et al., 2014). After barely ninety seconds of inhaling these oils participants felt more “comfortable”, “relaxed” and “natural”.

Have you ever noticed that in times of stress your skin becomes dry or you are plagued by eczema? Stress causes shrinking of the lipids that form the protective skin barrier, increasing transepidermal water loss (TEWL) – the escape of moisture from the skin. Some studies suggest that inhaling the “green odour” or rose essential oil can reduce this water leakage and prevent the stress-related drying of the skin (Fukada et al., 2007).

Aromatherapy is based on a holistic approach to the patient, considering both their physical and psychological needs (meaning that any effects of aromatherapy may be person-specific). Scientific studies have shown evidence both for and against the effectiveness of aromatherapy but with many individuals reporting benefits further research is certainly required.

This article is for informational purposes only. Always use essential oils as instructed by the manufacturer or a therapist.

Post by: Jadwiga Nazimek

Fukada, M., E. Kano, M. Miyoshi, R. Komaki, and T. Watanabe, 2012, Effect of “rose essential oil” inhalation on stress-induced skin-barrier disruption in rats and humans: Chem Senses, v. 37, p. 347-56.

Kadohisa, M., 2013, Effects of odor on emotion, with implications: Front Syst Neurosci, v. 7, p. 66.

Nakashima, T., M. Akamatsu, A. Hatanaka, and T. Kiyohara, 2004, Attenuation of stress-induced elevations in plasma ACTH level and body temperature in rats by green odor: Physiology & Behavior, v. 80, p. 481-488.

Sano, K., Y. Tsuda, H. Sugano, S. Aou, and A. Hatanaka, 2002, Concentration effects of green odor on event-related potential (P300) and pleasantness: Chemical Senses, v. 27, p. 225-230.

Takehara-Nishiuchi, K., 2014, Entorhinal cortex and consolidated memory: Neurosci Res, v. 84, p. 27-33.

Wilson-Mendenhall, C. D., L. F. Barrett, and L. W. Barsalou, 2013, Neural Evidence That Human Emotions Share Core Affective Properties: Psychological Science, v. 24, p. 947-956.

Science and Religion – Awkward Bedfellows Through The Ages

Science and religion haven’t always seen eye-to-eye over the centuries. The ways in which they impact upon one another have changed hugely, with each civilisation and religion having its own views and rules. Here, I’ll take a look at 3 major moments in history that showcase this ever-changing, and often tumultuous, relationship.

The Ancient Egyptians (~3150 BC to ~30 BC)

The Egyptians didn’t have what we would call ‘scientific understanding’. Rather than deducing earthly and natural meanings for the phenomena they observed, they attributed everything to their Gods. Yet they learned an incredible amount about the world in their bid to understand their Gods’ wishes and to use natural phenomena in the pursuit of worship.

One notable example of this was the way in which they used the stars, mapping the paths of certain celestial bodies across the sky with such accuracy that they were eventually able to predict their movements throughout the year. Much of our knowledge of the night sky has stemmed from Egyptian observations, and so their importance cannot be overstated.

Karnak Temple. Photo credit: Vyacheslav Argenberg via Flickr. Shared under Creative Commons License 2.0
Karnak Temple. Photo credit: Vyacheslav Argenberg via Flickr. Shared under Creative Commons License 2.0

A fantastic application of their knowledge can be seen in the Karnak Temple in Luxor, built for the Sun God, Amun Re. The Egyptian astronomers, or ‘cosmologists’, realised that the sun rises at different points along the horizon, depending on the time of year. So, when building the temple, the architects positioned the building so that, on the Winter Solstice, the sun rises directly between the 2 front pillars, filling the temple with light. By all accounts it is a phenomenal sight and one that I’d love to see some day.

However, whilst the Egyptian architects and thinkers were considered great minds, they were always considered inferior to the Gods they sought to worship. Religion dominated the culture, leaving little perceived need for Science.

The Ancient Greeks (~800 BC to ~150 BC)

Arguably, it wasn’t until the Ancient Greeks developed the first recognisable scientific methodology that things began to change. Amongst the Greeks were some of the greatest minds ever known, including Pythagoras, Archimedes and Aristotle. They began to study the reasons behind phenomena, not content to just accept them as the will of the Gods, gaining reputations for being geniuses in the process, even in their own time.

Hippocrates. Engraving by Peter Paul Rubens - Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons
Hippocrates. Engraving by Peter Paul Rubens – Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons

The Ancient Greeks’ religion overlapped somewhat with that of the Ancient Egyptians. Their often-similar Gods were also thought to influence most aspects of life. As such, there were some things that people just weren’t ready for science to explain. For example, Hippocrates – author of the Hippocratic Oath upon which Western medicine is founded – realised that disease wasn’t a divine punishment. It was, in fact, borne of earthly causes.

Obviously, such revelations didn’t always go down well. Hippocrates, whilst advancing his society’s understanding of the world, had just diminished the role of the Gods in that world. Eventually, however, these ideas took hold and arguably improved Science’s standing in society. Religion remained an integral part of society, but Science had now proven its worth and its role in society would only increase during the transition to enlightenment.

The 19th Century

By the 19th century, in Western cultures contradicting religious teachings was still proving massively controversial. In Christianity, for example, it was an accepted fact that God created the Earth, the Moon and the Stars, as well as all of Life.

Charles Darwin. Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons. Shared under Creative Commons License 3.0
Charles Darwin. Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons. Shared under Creative Commons License 3.0

Despite rumblings amongst some scientists that this wasn’t the case, scientific establishments had a close relationship with the Church of England, so such contradictory thinking never really took hold. A certain Mr Darwin, however, was so convinced of the importance of his work, ‘On the Origin of Species’, that he had it published on 24th November 1859, courting massive controversy. The Church, naturally, rejected the theory, whilst the scientific community was split.

The general public were caught in the middle of a fascinating stage in the relationship between Science and Religion. Should they trust the Church, which held such sway in their lives, or should they trust the ever-growing number of scientists, trusted and revered minds, who dared to disagree with the Church? For their part, scientists were now forced to dig deeper and drive scientific understanding even further in an effort to answer the questions to which the public demanded answers.

The product of all this is the world in which we live now, where Science is driving forward understanding at an ever-increasing pace. Religion remains important in many people’s lives but I would argue that, for many, Science has an even greater importance in their lives as it seeks to offer tangible evidence-based answers to the questions we have about the universe. The question now is how the relationship between Religion and Science will change in the future. It is a dynamic relationship, no doubt, with time and location playing massive roles in its development. Only time will tell how they will get along a century from now…

This post, by author Ian Wilson, was kindly donated by the Scouse Science Alliance and the original text can be found here.

Sartorial Science

Are you sick of the lazy stereotypes that surround scientists? That we are all old, white men in lab coats, with fuzzy hair and safety goggles, and that the only thing that we find fashionable are tank tops and boiler suits? Well I was, and so that is why my colleague Sophie Powell and I have created a new blog, to challenge these conventions.

Scientists come in all shapes and sizes…
Scientists come in all shapes and sizes…

I have always been extremely interested in fashion, and at one point I believe that I had the largest collection of bowties in the North West. As well as being a PhD student at the University of Manchester, Sophie is also a keen fashion blogger, posting regularly on her website, The Scientific Beauty. We were both sick of seeing articles such as this one from the Guardian portraying scientists as socially inept and modishly incompetent troglodytes, and so we decided to create Sartorial Science.

The idea behind this blog is that any scientist, from undergraduate to professor can send us a photo of them in their resplendent best, and then answer some basic questions about their research and their fashion influences. It is supposed to be a bit of fun, but like similarly minded projects ‘This is What a Scientist Looks Like’ and ‘STARtorialist’, it aims to showcase to the wider public that scientists are real people, and that many of them have a variety of interests outside of science, including fashion and looking fabulous!

Many might think that sites such as this are a waste of time, and that scientists should only

...and they can even wear science!
…and they can even wear science!

concern themselves with doing their research, publishing results, and applying for grants. However, it is extremely important to humanise the people behind the science, not least because it will help to inspire a future of generation of scientists. If younger students think that being a scientist is all about working in a laboratory and conforming to stereotypes, then many of them might not decide to pursue science any further than compulsory education.

As well as showcasing the sartorial merits of our contributors, we also hope to gather enough data to be able to start investigating the relationship between scientists and fashion, in a more detailed study that would be suitable for publication. But in order for that to happen we need lots more posts, so come on scientists show us your style!

Post by: Sam Illingworth

Fish and their sun-protective “superpowers”

Screen Shot 2015-08-28 at 17.22.27With the summer holidays in full swing and the sun making (intermittent) appearances, it’s time to start lathering on the suntan cream! Despite the hassle and general “greasiness” of these products, suntan cream is essential to protect our skin from damaging ultraviolet (UV) A and UVB rays which can lead to sunburn, premature skin aging and cancer. But while we’re busy trying not to stick to our beach towels, it may be interesting to note that not all organisms share our sticky plight: many bacteria, algae and marine invertebrates are known to produce their own sun protection. Now, research suggests that even fish may share this useful ability.

The sun is vital for maintaining life on Earth. It provides us with essential light and heat, without which our planet would be a lifeless rock covered in ice. But sunlight comprises different forms of light, including UV radiation which is Screen Shot 2015-08-28 at 17.22.38invisible to the naked eye. It is this UV radiation (specifically the UVA and UVB forms) that can be harmful to our health, causing damage to the skin’s DNA. In humans, this can result in detrimental DNA mutations occurring, leading to various skin cancers such as basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

But UV radiation is also harmful to other organisms, and many bacteria, algae and invertebrates that inhabit marine environments are exposed to high levels of sunlight (e.g. reefs, rock pools, etc.), meaning they need to protect themselves against this damaging UV radiation. While we humans need to lather on the suntan cream, these clever organisms produce their own sunscreens in the form of mycosporine-like amino acids and gadusols, which are able to absorb UV radiation and provide photoprotection. Such compounds are made by an enzyme called DDGS for short, a member of the sugar phosphate cyclase “superfamily” of proteins which are involved in synthesising natural therapeutic products (e.g. the antidiabetic drug acarbase).

While mycosporine-like amino acids and gadusols have been found in more complex marine animals, such as fish, it was originally thought that these compounds had been acquired through the animal’s diet. Recently, however, a group of scientists from Oregon State University in the United States have discovered that fish can produce gadusol themselves. Interestingly, this seems to be achieved through a different pathway to that used by bacteria.

Screen Shot 2015-08-28 at 17.22.45Rather than DDGS, the group found that fish (in this case, zebrafish) possess a gene responsible for making an enzyme similar to another member of the sugar phosphate cyclase superfamily, EEVS. This EEVS-like gene is found grouped with a functionally unknown gene termed MT-Ox. In fact, the researchers were able to produce their own gadusol by adding both genes to a modified strain of E Coli and growing the cells in an environment rich in the necessary components for gadusol production. This suggests the EEVS-like and MT-Ox genes are involved in the production of this UV-protective compound in fish. Importantly, both the EEVS-like and MT-Ox genes are expressed during embryonic development, providing further evidence that fish are able to synthesise gadusol, rather than simply acquiring the compound through their diet.

Unfortunately for us, the EEVS-like and MT-Ox genes are not present in the mammalian or human genome, but they do appear in other animals including amphibians, reptiles and birds, inferring that the production of UV-protective compounds may be even more widespread than once thought. And while this does not save us from the dreaded, yet essential exercise of putting on suntan cream, it certainly acts as a friendly reminder that we may not be as evolutionarily superior to these animals as we might think…which I suppose is a good thing.

Post by: Megan Barrett

Citizen science: the power of the crowd

Have you ever thought about being a scientist?  The growing movement of citizen science encourages public volunteers to contribute towards ‘the doing’ of scientific research, all without giving up the day job, undergoing extensive training or putting on a white coat. Topics and activities involved can vary widely, but typically ‘citizen scientists’ get involved in collecting, processing and/or interpreting data in some way, all under the direction of professional scientists or researchers.  For example, you could be asked to record observations about the natural environment, track human or animal behaviours, perform logging or mapping activities, or interpret images and patterns.

Galazy Zoo (a study to investigate the properties and histories of galaxies) is regarded as one of the most well-known and successful citizen science projects.  Launched in 2007, the project started life as a website that invited members of the public to sort images of galaxies into different categories (ellipticals, mergers and spirals).  Stunned by the speed and scale of the initial response (over 70,000 classifications received within 24 hours), the project has continued to attract an army of willing volunteers who perform ever more skilled tasks. Furthermore, they have developed a growing number of online resources to engage schools and the general public in astronomy.  Meanwhile, in Old Weather, volunteers delve into and transcribe the contents of historical logbooks from ships. Transcribing handwritten entries about weather readings taken at sea from thousands of logbooks into a digital (and analysable) format would clearly be a mammoth, and potentially impossible, task; yet, opening it up to the public has made it feasible.

So, citizen science can be a valuable way of both advancing scientific inquiry and engaging the public in science.  The general public can indulge their own interests whilst getting the feel-good factor of knowing they’ve contributed towards science. Basically, it’s a win-win situation.  Or is it?  Cynics may argue that some projects are little more than crowdsourcing, enabling scientists to achieve what would otherwise be too expensive, time consuming or intensive for researchers working alone.  Whilst it’s true that there may be pragmatic reasons for using citizen science approaches, projects can offer opportunities for genuine dialogue and collaboration between scientists and the public.  For example, members of the public with hay fever are now involved in designing #BritainBreathing, a citizen science project aimed at understanding more about seasonal allergies such as hay fever. So far, individuals have been involved in ‘paper prototyping’ workshops, to sketch out the design of a mobile phone app that will capture data about allergy-related symptoms such as sneezing, breathing and wheezing. Hence, the goal is to engage citizens in multiple roles whereby they can act as co-designers and collaborators, and not just as passive sensors.

More than just sensors: as part of #BritainBreathing, workshop attendees try out ‘paper prototyping’ to design a mobile phone app to capture data about hay fever symptoms.
More than just sensors: as part of #BritainBreathing, workshop attendees try out ‘paper prototyping’ to design a mobile phone app to capture data about hay fever symptoms.

Citizen science is not a new concept. Indeed, the first project has been traced back to 1833, when the astronomer Denison Olmsted invited the public to submit first-hand accounts of a spectacular meteor shower. Nonetheless, the term ‘citizen science’ only entered the Oxford English Dictionary In 2014 and it is enjoying a ‘boom period’ at the moment, with an explosion of projects emerging.  Why the sudden popularity, you might ask?  Two factors stand out.  First, advances in information technology and the widespread availability of internet-enabled devices (e.g. smartphones and tablets) have enabled individuals to contribute data online in real-time, on the move, and with minimal effort.  Second, there is growing recognition that the public have a stake in science and that research should be more democratic, shaped by the interests and needs of the people.  Whilst the former is certainly useful in enabling projects, personally it is the latter that most excites me.  Citizens have more opportunities (and power) than ever to shape research to generate the knowledge and solutions we want for our futures.  So go on, indulge your inner scientist. Power to the people.

Guest post by: Lamiece Hassan

Lam headshot 2Lamiece is a health services researcher and public involvement specialist at The University of Manchester.  With a background in psychology, her research has explored topics such as health promotion, mental health in prisons and psychotropic medicines.  Her current work focuses on how we can use digital technologies and health data in trustworthy ways to empower patients and improve health.

The science of silly: Our top 20 science jokes

6883192837_2f82bd2671_zI’m not sure about you but, for me, Sunday hails the end of one long week and the beginning of another *yawn! So, just in time to brighten up your Monday morning, the Brain Bank team have complied a list of 20 of the finest nerdy jokes to keep you smiling through the coming week!

In reverse order:

20) A mathematician walks into a bar and orders a root beer in a square glass.

19) A statistician gave birth to twins, but only had one of them baptised. She kept the other as a control.

18) A psychoanalyst shows a patient an inkblot, and asks him what he sees. The patient says: “A man and woman making love.” The psychoanalyst shows him a second inkblot, and the patient says: “That’s also a man and woman making love.” The psychoanalyst says: “You are obsessed with sex.” The patient says: “What do you mean I am obsessed? You are the one with all the dirty pictures.’’

17) Potassium and oxygen had a boxing match, it ended in a KO

16) There are 10 kinds of people in this world, those who understand binary, and those who don’t.

GodfreyKneller-IsaacNewton-168915) Einstein, Newton and Pascal are playing hide and seek. lt’s Einstein’s turn to count so he covers his eyes and starts counting to ten. Pascal runs off and hides. Newton draws a one meter by one meter square on the ground in front of Einstein then stands in the middle of it. Einstein reaches ten and uncovers his eyes. He sees Newton immediately and exclaims “Newton! I found you! You’re it! ” Newton smiles and says “You didn’t find me, you found a Newton over a square meter. You found Pascal!”

14) What does a subatomic duck say? Quark!

13) A photon walks into a hotel and the porter asks “do you need any help with your luggage?” The photon replies “no thanks I’m traveling light.”

12) Know any good sodium jokes? … NA

11) What does DNA stand for? National Dyslexia Association.

10) Sodium sodium sodium sodium sodium sodium sodium sodium Batman!

9) A physicist and a biologist tried to get together but, in the end it didn’t work out – they had no chemistry!

8) Why can’t you trust an atom? Because they make up everything.

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7) I was up all night wondering where the Sun had gone…then it dawned on me.

6) Why can’t atheists solve exponential equations? Because they don’t believe in higher powers.

5) What does the “B” in Benoit B. Mandelbrot stand for?…Benoit B. Mandelbrot.

4) There’s a new restaurant on the Moon. The food’s great but there’s no atmosphere

3) I have a new theory on inertia but it doesn’t seem to be gaining momentum.

2) If the silver surfer and iron man team up, they’d be alloy’s

1) A blowfly goes into a bar and asks: “Is that stool taken?”

So there are a few of our favorites, we hope they made you laugh! Please add your own in the comments section below.

Post by: Sarah Fox

A Closed Door or an Open Window?

The Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) have recently announced that they are lessening their proposed stance in relation to Open Access (OA) for the next round of the Research Excellence Framework (REF). If that opening sentence seems like it contains far too many acronyms to be of relevance to you then think again, as effectively what it means is that scientific research will be less accessible by the general public than had previously been hoped for.

What a lot of non-researchers don’t realise is that a lot of scientific articles sit behind a pay wall, which like that of news outlets such as The Times, means that you have to pay in order to access them. These fees vary from journal to journal, but are normally somewhere in the £15-£25 price range (per article), which means that if you wanted to look at four separate articles you could be paying upwards of £100. Of course you may be asking yourself, “yes, but when am I going to actually want to read one of these articles?” But, imagine that you have a terminally ill relative and have just heard of a new miracle cure, or that you are a potato farmer wanting to fully investigate the efficiency of a new type of pesticide. Would you be able to shell out for each of these articles, no matter how spurious the abstracts (which ARE free to access) might appear? Of course you could take up an annual subscription for some of these journals but, with the Nature brand of journals having 91 publications alone, and with most of these subscription costs in excess of £200 per journal, these costs soon become insurmountable.

The Open Access movement demands free and open access to all research articles (and also data) for everyone.
The Open Access movement demands free and open access to all research articles (and also data) for everyone.

I have written more extensively on the topic elsewhere, but the whole point of the OA movement is to make these journal articles freely available for all, with either the researcher or the central government bearing the cost. And, it was supposed to be HEFCE that was helping to bring about the change by implementing restrictions for the REF. For those of you who do not know, the REF is basically a giant study that is conducted every six years, in which the research output of every UK university is assessed and ranked, with funding awarded from HEFCE based on that ranking. Again, more details on REF can be read about here, but the idea was that in order for publications to qualify for REF2020, they would need to be made OA, either by publishing in OA journals, or placing them in a freely-accessible repository within three months of the journal article being accepted for publication.

The 2014 REF top 10; a bit like the Premiership, only less competitive.
The 2014 REF top 10; a bit like the Premiership, only less competitive.

However, under the new guidelines (which can be read here, with highlighted track changes from the original document), which have been revisited after consultation with several leading research institutes, the rules have been changed, and the period of grace is now three months since publication. This may seem like quite a subtle difference, but in some cases it will mean that there is a period of several more months before the research is made freely available. There have also been some other changes, including the admittedly sensible decision that any article that is published via the gold route (i.e. in an OA journal) need not be uploaded to the repository until the final published version has been created. However, I think that there is a very real danger that any softening of the rules is indicative of the fact that HEFCE are probably likely to bend the rules, probably to ensure that any of the larger, and less OA mobilised, research institutes don’t miss out on their slice of the REF pie. The fact that “this additional flexibility will be reviewed in 2016” means that we need to monitor these developments very carefully indeed, in order to make sure that the door is not just slightly ajar, but ripped clean off its hinges so that everyone is welcome.

Post by: Sam Illingworth

Suicide: killed by depression?

Please note that, due to its content, readers may find this article distressing.

I had been kidnapped by depression and killed.

Gwyneth Lewis

A couple of months ago my friend died by suicide. A vivacious, kind and gentle guy, he was one of the six thousand people who kill themselves every year in the UK (Samaritans, Suicide Statistics Report 2015). Every such death affects on average 10-15 people, including family, friends, neighbours and work colleagues (Dyregrov, 2011). Even though the poet Gwyneth Lewis, cited at the beginning of this article, did not attempt a suicide, depression is a major contributor to lethal self-injury. In fact, suicidality is one of the symptoms of this illness. Most of us can probably imagine how loss of hope and prolonged despair can make us want to escape life. However, not all depressed people desire death; among those that do, only about half will attempt to take their lives (May et al., 2012).

Depression and hopelessness are major predictors of suicide.  Image courtesy of David Castillo Dominici at FreeDigitalPhotos.net
Depression and hopelessness are major predictors of suicide.
Image courtesy of David Castillo Dominici at FreeDigitalPhotos.net

Why is it then that people kill themselves? According to the interpersonal theory of suicide it is because of the combination of three factors: thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and the capability for lethal self-injury (Joiner, 2005; Van Orden et al., 2010). Thwarted belongingness is a subjective feeling of being disconnected from others, loneliness and lack of mutual care: “I have no one to turn to”, “I am not a support for others”. For example, prisoners kept in single cells are more likely to attempt a suicide. Thwarted belongingness does not necessarily mean that we truly do not belong; it could just be the case of interpreting the behaviour of others as rejecting.

The second factor, perceived burdensomeness, is the feeling that we are a burden to others. It arises from self-hatred and from the belief that we are inadequate, that we let others down and therefore our family and friends will be better off without us: “I make things worse for the people in my life”, “I am useless”. Perceived burdensomeness plays an important role in suicides of terminal cancer patients. Of course, the subjective feeling of being a burden, or being ‘expendable’ does not mean that others also see us as a burden; often it is part of a distorted view of the self and others. Such bias towards negative signals and the perception that we are ‘stuck’  can be remedied with cognitive-behavioural therapy, which helps us to restructure the way we interpret information, how we make sense of the world and how we approach problems.

I dreamt about a creature, a cross between a beaver and a rabbit had landed between my shoulder blades, biting in so deeply that it hung there. Whenever I moved to try and catch the creature its weight would make the flesh gape even more, as if it were unzipping my back. (…)  Of course, the creature on my back was me and it was pointless trying to get away. (…) If you met me you’d think I was perfectly nice, but (…) it’s what you are at two in the morning when you’ve been pushed off a cliff again and have nothing to hold on to as you fall.’

Gwyneth Lewis

Thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, accompanied by loss of hope, together create the desire to die (suicidal ideation). However, in order to complete a suicide we also need the capability for lethal self-injury. In other words, people kill themselves not only because they want to, but also because they can; after all, suicide is painful and violent, and therefore very difficult to carry out. The interpersonal theory proposes that self-killing becomes easier if we lose our fear of death and if we are less sensitive to pain. This is why previous attempts, as well as previous experience of violence make us more likely to die by suicide. However, the capability for lethal self-injury also increases with increased access to information about suicide and the means to complete it. For example, military people, when choosing a mean of suicide attempt, opt for the method they have been exposed to: members of the army prefer guns, those in the navy  – hanging and air force individuals – falling from heights. Consider also the phenomenon of suicide contagion (Wray, 2012). It has also been termed the Werther effect after the suicide of the main character in the famous novel by Goethe led to a wave of copy-cat deaths.  Golden Bridge in the US attracts suicidal people from all over the country and from abroad. Kevin Berthia was one of the two hundred people coaxed back from its railings by a police officer. He chose the bridge for the ease of death it offered. He also admitted that erecting a suicide net under the bridge would definitely discourage him from jumping.

Van Orden et al., 2010. Assumptions of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide.
Van Orden et al., 2010. Assumptions of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide.

The interpersonal theory of suicide can help explain the links between lethal self-injury and age, as well as some personality aspects. Loss of health and independence, sometimes combined with limited financial means puts older people at greater risk of ending their lives (Jahn and Cukrowicz, 2011). This is because having to rely on the help of others, especially children and grandchildren, makes older people feel that they are a burden. Perceived burdensomeness also appears to be important in linking perfectionism with suicidal tendencies (Rasmussen et al., 2012). Perfectionist individuals tend to set themselves standards which are so high that it is often impossible for them to reach their own expectations. As a result they may fall prey to feelings of incompetence, self –blame and inadequacy, and start to see themselves as a burden on others.

On the other hand, it has been shown that mindfulness as a personality trait can help prevent suicide in veterans (Serpa et al., 2014). Mindfulness is an awareness of present moment with non-judgemental attention, almost the opposite of rumination and worry. It makes it easier to cope with negative emotions, alleviates the severity of mental illness and reduces the risk of suicide.

The interpersonal theory of suicide provided me with a partial explanation for my friend’s death. Ending one’s life is said to be the permanent solution to the temporary problems; the sense of hopelessness blinds us to the fact that no matter how bad things are, nothing lasts forever. Sometimes it takes a while to find the right treatment or the right approach to help those in despair. However, mindfulness and cognitive-behavioural therapy are only some of the treatments that can be tried and that work for many people. Perhaps we should also come up with effective ways to teach ourselves and our children how to better manage our emotions, look after our psychological selves and how to find meaning in life.

In memory of Stephen

If you or someone you know needs help, contact Samaritans at 0845 790 9090.

Post by: Jadwiga Nazimek

Other sources of help:

http://www.helpguide.org/articles/suicide-prevention/suicide-prevention-helping-someone-who-is-suicidal.htm

http://www.helpguide.org/articles/suicide-prevention/suicide-help-dealing-with-your-suicidal-thoughts-and-feelings.htm

REFERENCES:

Dyregrov, K. (2011). What do we know about needs for help after suicide in different parts of the world? A phenomenological perspective. Crisis, 32(6), 310–318.

Jahn D.R., Cukrowicz, K.C. (2011) The Impact of the Nature of Relationships on Perceived Burdensomeness and Suicide Ideation in a Community Sample of Older Adults. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 41(6) 635-49

Joiner, T.E. (2005) Why people die by suicide. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Lewis, G. Sunbathing in the rain. A cheerful book about depression.

Rasmussen, K.A., Slish, M.L., Wingate, L.R., Davidson, C.L., Grant, D.M. (2012) Can Perceived Burdensomeness Explain the Relationship Between Suicide and Perfectionism?

Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 42(2): 121-128.

Serpa, J.G., Taylor, S.L., Tillisch, K. (2014) Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) reduces anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation in veterans. Medical Care 52(12 Suppl 5):S19-24. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000000202.

Van Orden, K.A., Witte, T.K., Cukrowicz, K.C., Braithwaite, S.R., Selby, E.A. & Joiner, T.E. (2010). The interpersonal theory of suicide. Psychological Review 117, 575–600. doi:

10.1037/a0018697

http://edition.cnn.com/2014/06/27/health/golden-gate-suicide-barrier/ accessed 17/06/2015

Wray, M.  (2014) When it comes to suicide, how may be just as important as why. http://theconversation.com/when-it-comes-to-suicide-how-may-be-just-as-important-as-why-33426 accessed 17/06/2015

Samaritans ‘Suicide Statistics Report 2015’ http://www.samaritans.org/sites/default/files/kcfinder/branches/branch-96/files/Suicide_statistics_report_2015.pdf accessed 18/06/2015

Diabetes & Periodontitis – A Deadly Combination

People are unaware that diabetes mellitus, either type 1 or type 2, goes hand in hand with increased susceptibilities to oral health problems. Even diabetics themselves know little about the risks of bacterial infections such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, a primary cause of periodontitis; the correct term for gum disease. Although P. gingivalis is not normally found in subjects with good dental health, the presence of other bacteria is far more common. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus gordonii are both found within the oral setting and form biofilms on the tooth surface. Regular brushing and flossing removes these unwanted visitors but if the accumulated bacteria remain undisturbed for a long period of time they can begin to destroy the gum tissue surrounding the teeth. Interestingly this is where the P. gingivalis comes in. A shift in normal ecological balance in the microenvironment allows the bacteria to act as a secondary invader of the gums, and more specifically the gingival sulcus, the part where the tissue contacts the tooth. Colonisation of P. gingivalis arises via its ability to adhere to salivary molecules, matrix proteins in the gum and other bacteria present in the mouth. It is clearly an opportunistic pathogen.

Figure 1 - P.gingivalis: a dental nightmare
Figure 1 – P.gingivalis: a dental nightmare

So, why do diabetics have an increased risk of developing periodontitis? Well, Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) arise from chronic hyperglycaemia and therefore are common in diabetes. It is these glycated proteins or lipids which have been shown to impact on periodontal deterioration. Although the exact mechanism behind the interactions of AGE with the disease are unknown there is general consensus suggesting a couple of important points;

  • An accumulation of AGEs affects the host immunological response. The products can disrupt an important nuclear transcription factor called NF-κβ, one which is involved in many inflammatory responses. IL-6 and TNF-α are also just two important pro-inflammatory cytokines which have been shown to be upregulated in the presence of AGEs.
  • AGEs will not only upregulate the production of certain cytokines, they also affect the chemotactic properties of mono and polynuclear cells. This enhances the inflammatory response at a given site of infection, in this case at the gums and surrounding tissue.

One final problem in diabetic patients is a drop in salivary pH. Xerostomia, or hypo-salivation is a main cause of the low pH. Maintaining the correct level of fluid in the body perhaps is the greatest problem for individuals with diabetes mellitus. The presence of AGEs and glycated haemoglobin, the latter being another result of high blood sugar levels, disrupts the balance of fluid and electrolytes in the blood stream. Diabetes is a condition that is associated with polyuria (frequent urination), which occurs because the excessive glucose found in the blood changes the normal osmolarity gradient within the body. Simple GCSE Biology states that water will move from an area of high concentration to low concentration. Therefore the increased movement of water into the bloodstream will effectively force the kidney to produce more urine. It’s a vicious cycle – high glucose levels mean more urine produced, causing the person to become dehydrated which leads onto hypo-salivation, leaving an environment perfect for bacterial infection.

 Figure 2 - Periodontitis - A problem for all, but one that is more worrying for diabetics
Figure 2 – Periodontitis – A problem for all, but one that is more worrying for diabetics

The low pH and reduced salivary rate contributes to an increase in tooth decay and as a consequence bacterial/fungal infections are more common in individuals with diabetes mellitus. This is because most oral bacteria and yeast thrive in the acidic conditions of the mouth, the reason why dental experts warn against sugary diet rich in carbohydrates – the main source of food for all mouth dwelling species. This is an alarming problem for experts and scientists worldwide, with an estimated 1 in 3 individuals with either form of diabetes mellitus having some degree of periodontitis during their lifetime. Of course the deterioration of dental health concerns everybody, but more attention must be paid to those that are at a higher risk. Managing the condition as a whole will pay dividends but are there any further precautions which should be taken to preserve the oral wellbeing for diabetics? This remains the most difficult question. Antimicrobial management and regular periodontal treatment is common in the general population, but both should be more prevalent in controlling diabetes related infections.

This post, by author Jason Brown, was kindly donated by the Scouse Science Alliance and the original text can be found here.

References
Goyal, D. et al (2012) Salivary pH and Dental Caries in Diabetes Mellitus. International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology. 3(4):13-16
Griffen, AL. et al (1998) Prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Periodontal Health Status. J Clin Microbiol. 36(11):3239-3242
Lamont, RJ. Jenkinson, H. (1998) Life Below the Gum Line: Pathogenic Mechanisms of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62(4):1244-1263
Takeda, M. et al (2006) Relationship of Serum Advanced Glycation End Products with Deterioration of Periodontitis in Type 2 Diabetes Patients. J.Periodontol. 77(1): 15-20.

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