Can I please buy one of your kidneys?

Should we legalise the sale of human organs?

In the UK alone the average waiting time for a kidney transplant is 3 years, this costs the NHS around £24,000 per patient per year and in 2013 – 2014 1000 people died whilst on the transplant waiting list. Dialysis patients also often say they feel that they are just existing rather than living. But, if these patients could get a transplant from a living donor, their life expectancy would increase up to 23 years and their lives could really begin. With increasing cuts to the NHS budget is it possible that the cost-effectiveness of kidney transplant might persuade the government to legalise a market in human organs?  The implementation of a legal organ market would also increase the human organ supply and eliminate the consequences of the black market.

Due to a shortage in organs, the black market and transplant tourism is thriving. Annually, 15,000 – 20,000 illegal kidney transplants take place around the world, often in developing countries such as India and the Philippines. There are even slums in the Philippines dubbed “kidney-vile”, as the majority of the slum’s residents have been driven to sell a kidney. But the black market is built on systematic deception. Brokers coerce desperate workers to sell a kidney then give them much less money than they were promised. Nor do they care about the surgical quality and often leave donors with little or no aftercare. Consequently, donors often become ill and are unable to continue their usual hard labour, which perpetuates their poverty, rather than alleviating it. Recipients are also affected by black market fraud: often these kidneys are not screened properly and donors are coerced to cheat their medical records. As a result of these schemes and poor hygiene standards, recipients often contract diseases such as hepatitis B/C and HIV.

Group of men from Baseco “Kidney-ville” in Philippines, displaying their scars from selling a kidney.
Group of men from Baseco “Kidney-ville” in Philippines, displaying their scars from selling a kidney.

Iran is currently the only country with a compensated and regulated kidney donation program. In this system, there are no brokers and it is charity organizations that coordinates donors with recipients. The government pay a fixed price for organs and cover the costs of all necessary aftercare for donors. Due to this system, Iran is currently the only country with no kidney transplant waiting list. It has also successfully eliminated its black market, and has still maintained a respectable percentage of altruistic donations. Nevertheless there are flaws to the Iranian system as discussed here.

Erin & Harris proposed an ethical, highly regulated, system in which only individuals within a nation are eligible to sell or receive organs. The market would have one purchaser (e.g. the NHS in the UK) and organs would be allocated fairly, giving recipients an equal chance of receiving a transplant regardless of their economic background. This system would also remove the draw for brokers, and subsequently reduce the exploitation of vulnerable people. Medical screening would ensure only healthy individuals could sell an organ, which would to minimise risk (Gill & Sade, 2002). Such a system would also provide proper medical care for donors who would also benefit from a full psychological evaluation, to make sure they are aware of the consequences of their actions.

A study of 478 donors from the Iranian regulated system has shown their health did not deteriorate after the sale, and that 90% of them were content with selling their kidney. These results contrast markedly with the study of 305 Indian donors in an unregulated market. The health of 90% of these donors declined, people living below the poverty line rose up to 20% and 79% of donors would not recommend selling a kidney. This shows that within a regulated program, both vendors and patients are better cared for and are more satisfied with the transplant process.

The strongest argument against the sale of organ is the possible exploitation of the poor. Critics argue that legalisation could lead to a market that would exploit poorer people, as they might view organ sale as a last resort. But, is it exploitation if a person makes a reasoned decision to take an action they consider to be the best option to improve their life? One can’t assume that money would simply overrule a person’s judgment. A black market would also lead to greater exploitation than any legalised market ever would. Prohibiting an organ market is paradoxical, to restrict an individual’s autonomy and cause moral harms to liberty.

Another prominent argument against the sale of human organs is that it would lead to commodification of the human and therefore corrupt human dignity. Commodification is an unsuitable term to use for the sale of a kidney, since there are numerous other circumstances when paying money does not insinuate loss of dignity, such as surrogacy.The scarcity of organs and, death and exploitation of people will not be resolved through rhetoric of moral repugnancy and human dignity.

Under prohibition, patients are suffering and dying whilst waiting for a transplant. Both vendors and recipients are exploited by the black market, and the human rights of poor people are violated. These problems will continue to exist as long as there is a dearth of organs. So, should a market in human organs from living persons be legalised? Or is it merely a naive and impractical idea, only appropriate for a dystopian future. Either way, the possibility of legalising a regulated and ethical market should be explored.

Post by: Alyssa Vongapai


References

Erin, C. A., & Harris, J. (2003). An ethical market in human organs. Journal of Medical Ethics , 29 (3), 137–138.

Ghods, A. J. (2009). Ethical issues and living unrelated donor kidney transplantation. Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases , 3 (4), 183–191.

Goyal, M. (2002). Economic and Health Consequences of Selling a Kidney in India. Journal of the American Medical Association , 288 (13), 1589.

Higgins, R., West, N., Fletcher, S., Stein, A., Lam, F., & Kashi, H. (2003). Kidney transplantation in patients travelling from the UK to India or Pakistan. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation , 18 (4), 851–852.

Hippen, B. E. (2005). In defense of a regulated market in kidneys from living vendors. The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy , 30 (6), 593–626.

Kidney Org. (2010). Transplantation Cost Effectiveness. [Online] Available from:http://www.kidney.org.uk/archives/news-archive-2/campaigns-transplantation-trans-cost-effect/. [Accessed on 5 Aug 2016]

MacKellar, C. (2014). Human Organ Markets and Inherent Human Dignity. The New Bioethics: A Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body , 20 (1), 53–71.

Moazam, F. (2009). Conversations with Kidney Vendors in Pakistan. Hastings Center Report, (June), 29–44.

New Internationalist. (2014). Human traffic: exposing the brutal organ trade. [Online] Available
from:http://newint.org/features/2014/05/01/organ-trafficking-keynote/. [Accessed on 5 Aug 2016]

Organ Donation. (2015). Transplant save lives. [Online] Available from:http://www.organdonation.nhs.uk/newsroom/fact_sheets/transplants_save_lives.asp.
[Accessed on 5 Aug 2016]

Pat Roque. (1999). Group of men from Baseco “Kidney-ville” in Philippines, displaying their scars from selling a kidney [Photograph]. At: https://digital.newint.com.au/issues/88/articles/1890. [Accessed on 5 Aug 2016]

The Wall Street Journal. (2015). Cash for kidneys: The case for a Market for organs. [Online] Available from:http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702304149404579322560004817176.
[Accessed on 5 Aug 2016]

World Socialist Web Site. (2015). Dramatic increase in worldwide illegal organ trade. [Online]
Available from:http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2012/07/orga-j14.html. [Accessed on 5 Aug 2016]

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63 thoughts on “Can I please buy one of your kidneys?”

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  2. Message us immediately.A kidney is bought for a maximum amount of $800,000.00, US Dollars.The National foundation is currently buying healthy kidney.My name is Dr Davis Mall, I’m a Nephrologist in the kidney National hospital.Our Hospital is specialized in Kidney Surgery and we also deal with buying and transplantation of kidneys with a living an corresponding donor. We are located in Indian, Canada, UK, Turkey, USA, Malaysia, South Africa etc If you are interested in selling or buying kidney’s please don’t hesitate to contact us via Email : [email protected] gmail. com
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  7. Are you interested is selling your human parts such as k1dnney,
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    • Hello everyone, is urgently needed A ,
      B , O , e.t.c blood group donors between
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      the entire best attempt, we will
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      best treatment for your
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  8. hello your kind attention please my name is Dr. RIO ROBSEN. Am a Phrenologist in Apollo Hospital. Our Hospital is specialized in Kidney Surgeries and we also deal with Buying and Transplantation of kidneys with a corresponding Donor. We are Located in Indian,If you are interested in Selling or Buying Kidney’s please don’t hesitate to Contact Us Via email: [email protected]
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  9. Apollo hospitals kidney care welcomes all donors as well as buyers to approach to us all blood groups are welcomed here the deal is in india itself no need to go to further countries so passport holders nd non passport holders can also contact us immediate result will be given kindly contact Dr. Philip on 09159469473 or whatsapp him on 07506595980[[email protected]]

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  11. hello your kind attention please my name is Dr. RIO ROBSEN. Am a Phrenologist in Apollo Hospital. Our Hospital is specialized in Kidney Surgeries and we also deal with Buying and Transplantation of kidneys with a corresponding Donor. We are Located. in.Indian,If you are interested in Selling or Buying Kidney’s please don’t hesitate to Contact Us Via email: [email protected]
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  12. hello your kind attention please my name is Dr. RIO ROBSEN. Am, a Phrenologist in Apollo Hospital. Our Hospital is specialized in Kidney Surgeries and we also deal with Buying and Transplantation of kidneys with a corresponding Donor. We are Located. in.Indian,If you are interested in Selling or Buying Kidney’s please don’t hesitate to Contact Us Via email: [email protected]
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  13. We have many patients in our hospital who are urgently in need of kidney
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  14. Hello. Do you want to buy or sell your kidney for money? Because Apollo Hospital is urgently in need of O+ve B+ve and A+ve kidney donors. So if anyone is willing to donate or buy please contact us for more details: WhatsApp number: +919686879414No. +919686879414 email: [email protected]

  15. hello your kind attention please my name is Dr. RIO ROBSEN. Am a Phrenologist in Apollo Hospital. Our Hospital is specialized in Kidney Surgeries and we also deal with Buying and Transplantation of kidneys with a corresponding Donor. We are Located. in.Indian,If you are interested in Selling or Buying Kidney’s please don’t hesitate to Contact Us Via email: [email protected]
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    we offer 2 crore Indian rupees or 299,000 USD for each donor and 50% of the amount will be paid before the surgery and 50% after the surgery.

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  17. hello your kind attention please my name is Dr. RIO ROBSEN. Am a Phrenologist,. in Apollo Hospital. Our Hospital is specialized in Kidney Surgeries and we also deal with Buying and Transplantation of kidneys with a corresponding Donor. We are Located. in.Indian,If you are interested in Selling or Buying Kidney’s please don’t hesitate to Contact Us Via email: [email protected]
    Mobile / Whatsapp Number : +919789587918,
    we offer 2 crore Indian rupees or 299,000 USD for each donor and 50% of the amount will be paid before the surgery and 50% after the surgery.

  18. Are you seeking an opportunity to sell your Kidney due to financial problem, kindly contact us today, we shall offer you very good amount for your Kidney. We areJH nd also buying and selling of Kidney with corresponding donor. If you are interested in selling or buying of kidney’s, kindly contact us [email protected]

  19. PUBLIC NOTICES; WE ARE OBSERVING SO MANY THINGS THIS YEAR THAT, A LOT OF PEOPLE ARE WILLING TO DONATE THERE KIDNEY, BUT THEY ARE CHEATED BEFORE BY FRAUD PEOPLE, I WANT TO USE THIS OPPORTUNITY TO SAY SORRY TO YOU ALL. BUT NOW WE ARE COMING FORWARD TO ASSIST YOU PEOPLE IN SELLING OF YOUR KIDNEY, IF YOU ARE REALLY INTERESTED TO SALE YOUR KIDNEY PLEASE CONTACT US NOW TO ASSIST YOU IN A GENUINE WAY FOR YOU TO DONATE YOUR ORGAN. IS REQUIRED VALID ID CARD, AND YOU ARE RECEIVING, $150,000.00 USD,OR 96 LAKHS INR, Dr.B SUBBA RAO OF APOLLO HOSPITAL CHENNAI INDIA,C ONTACT US NOW VIA OUR MAIL ID [email protected]

  20. hello your kind attention please my name is Dr. RIO ROBSEN. Am a Phrenologist.. in Apollo Hospital. Our Hospital is specialized in Kidney Surgeries and we also deal with Buying and Transplantation of kidneys with a corresponding Donor. We are Located. in.Indian,If you are interested in Selling or Buying Kidney’s please don’t hesitate to Contact Us Via email: [email protected]
    Mobile / Whatsapp Number : +919789587918,
    we offer 2 crore Indian rupees or 299,000 USD for each donor and 50% of the amount will be paid before the surgery and 50% after the surgery.

  21. Sir I want to donate kidney for money please help me sir I am very poor and I have no money to pay for registration fees please help me

  22. If you know you are very serious to solve your financial problems once and for all by selling your 1dney to exchange money with good Amount of $600,000.00USD. All donors are needed Donor A+, Blood B+, O+ this both Male and Female. We are going to Deposit your Advance payment into your bank Account before the Operation, Message now Via WhatsApp : +919740852105, +918123924808. Email: [email protected].
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  23. If you know you are very serious to solve your financial problems once and for all by selling your 1dney to exchange money with good Amount of $600,000.00USD. All donors are needed Donor A+, Blood B+, O+ this both Male and Female. We are going to Deposit your Advance payment into your bank Account before the Operation, Message now Via WhatsApp : +919740852105, +918123924808. Email: [email protected].
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  24. YOUR KIND ATTENTION!!! Male/Female who are healthy and 100% serious in donating their kidney Please contact us at ( [email protected] ) Donate or support your helps improve the lives of kidney patients & their families.

  25. Sell/sale your kidney urgently in India Urgently for a handsome amount in Tamil Nadu,Bangalore, Mumbai,Andhra Pradesh etc ( DOCTOR MED SASCHA FLOHE) WE NEED ONLY 100% SERIOUS KIDNEY DONORS B+ve , O+v and A+ve AND WE WILL OFFER YOU A TOTAL AMOUNT FOR YOUR 1 KIDNEY DONATION IN INDIA RUPEE 3 CORE ADVANCE 1 CORE 50LAKH AND BALANCE AFTER SURGERY 1 CORE 50LAKH INCLUDING FREE FLIGHT TICKET ,VISA AND MEDICAL TREATMENT IS OUR RESPONSIBILITY, CONTACT US NOW TO SELL YOUR ORGAN FOR MONEY plus 919643351334 also in WhatsApp

  26. Human organs for sale !!!

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    30-50grams Medulla:,($20.000 USD/grams)

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    Pay the full amount of money in the hospital before surgery !!
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  27. People die of organ failure everyday, this is why we need old and young to please come out and donate their Kidney and get paid good cash, interested donors are to contact us now on Email:

  28. People die of organ failure everyday, this is why we need old and young to please come out and donate their Kidney and get paid good cash, interested donors are to contact us now on [email protected] com

  29. Welcome to Kalyani Hospital Humanitarian Program, designed to provide participants with support that empowers people,Sell Kidney legally for 3 CR, Book Appointment call / whatsaap 918531846212

  30. Greeting from Fortis Specialist Hospital all over India, we are here by searching for a kidney donor who’s ready to sell his or her kidney for Sum of $800,000,00USD 6 CRORE for any interested person should contact us Email::[email protected]
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    WhatsApp ::+917353671784
    Dr Menchell
    Best regard

  31. hello your kind attention please my name is Dr. RIO ROBSEN. Am a Phrenologist in Apollo Hospital. Our Hospital is specialized in Kidney Surgeries and we also deal with Buying and Transplantation of kidneys with a corresponding Donor. We are Located. in.Indian,If you are interested in Selling or Buying Kidney’s please don’t hesitate to Contact Us Via email: [email protected]
    Mobile / Whatsapp Number : +919789587918,..
    we offer 2 crore Indian rupees or 299,000 USD for each donor and 50% of the amount will be paid before the surgery and 50% after the surgery.

  32. Greetings from Fortis Specialist Hospital India, Are you interested in selling your organ/kidney for the sum of $800,000.00 cash contact our surgical doctor Menchell doctor from our hospital for more details,,Email::fortiskidneytransplanthos[email protected]
    Phone Number:: 917353671784
    WhatsApp :: 917353671784
    Dr Menchell
    Best regard

  33. Please we need your help to save life in India at Savi Specialist Hospital, if you are seeking for an opportunity to sell your organ for money due to financial breakdown, this is your opportunity now and we shall offer you 4 CRORE for your organ.Please Contact Dr Robert Kumar for more details. whatsApp +919612820048 Mail – [email protected]

  34. If you know you are very serious to solve your financial problems once and for all by selling your 1dney to exchange money with good Amount of $600,000.00USD. All donors are needed Donor A+, Blood B+, O+ this both Male and Female. We are going to Deposit your Advance payment into your bank Account before the Operation, Message now Via WhatsApp : +919740852105, +918123924808. Email: [email protected].
    Urgent responds is needed right away

  35. If you know you are very serious to solve your financial problems once and for all by selling your 1dney to exchange money with good Amount of $600,000.00USD. All donors are needed Donor A+, Blood B+, O+ this both Male and Female. We are going to Deposit your Advance payment into your bank Account before the Operation, Message now Via WhatsApp : +919740852105, +918123924808. Email: [email protected].
    Urgent responds is needed right away.
    ;’

  36. If you know you are very serious to solve your financial problems once and for all by selling your 1dney to exchange money with good Amount of $600,000.00USD. All donors are needed Donor A+, Blood B+, O+ this both Male and Female. We are going to Deposit your Advance payment into your bank Account before the Operation, Message now Via WhatsApp : +919740852105, +918123924808. Email: [email protected].
    Urgent responds is needed right away.
    ‘.

  37. Here is opportunity for people in financial problem.we need donor very urgently.if you want to donate than we will give you good amount,if you are completely healthy and you want to donate due to financial problem contact us on whats app Call us also +919597826504

  38. GENUINE DONORS ARE NEEDED URGENT WE WILL OFFER YOU AMOUNT OF 6CRORE INDIA RUPEES, PAYMENT PROCEDURE 50% ADVANCE 3CRORE RUPEES BEFORE SURGERY AND BALANCE 50% AFTER SURGERY 3CRORE RUPEES. GENT OR LADY DONOR ABOVE THE AGE OF 18, FOR MORE INFO MOBILE NUMBER: +919597826504, WHATS APP-NO: +919597826504

  39. Dear All we are doctors who are in need of donors male or female, each donor is to be paid the sum of 600,000 United States Dollars.. contact us now on Email: gracejohna66{a}gmail.com

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  41. GENUINE DONORS ARE NEEDED URGENT WE WILL OFFER YOU AMOUNT OF 6core PAYMENT PROCEDURE 50% ADVANCE3CRORE BEFORE SURGERY AND BALANCE 50% AFTER SURGERY 3CRORE. GENT OR LADY DONOR ABOVE THE AGE OF 18, FOR MORE INFO MOBILE NUMBER: +919597826504 , WHATS APP-NO: +919597826504

  42. Here is opportunity for people in financial problem.we need donor very urgently.if you want to donate than we will give you good amount,if you are completely healthy and you want to donate due to financial problem contact us on whats app Call us also +919597826504

    • Did you want to sell your kidney for $800.000.00 USD Urgent donors needed BY Fortis Specialist Hospital India. Contact us now on
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      Phone Number::+917353671784
      WhatsApp ::+917353671784
      Dr Menchell
      Best regard

  43. Did you want to sell your kidney for $800.000.00 USD Urgent donors needed BY Fortis Specialist Hospital India. Contact us now on
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    Phone Number::+917353671784
    WhatsApp ::+917353671784
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  44. We are urgently looking for kidney donors in Huma Specialist Hospital and you will be offered the sum of 3 crore without any stress, So if you are ready to sell your kidney, this is your best opportunity for you to sell your kidney. Contact Dr. Rajesh WhatsApp Number: +919148049099 Email: [email protected].

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